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Vascular complications after liver trans-plant can be lethal. High levels of suspicion and aggressive use of diagnostic tools may help with early diagnosis and treatment. Here, we share our experiences regarding this topic.

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Petroleum industry is one of the fastest growing industries, and it significantly contributes to economic growth in developing countries like India. The wastewater from a petroleum industry consist a wide variety of pollutants like petroleum hydrocarbons, mercaptans, oil and grease, phenol, ammonia, sulfide, and other organic compounds. All these compounds are present as very complex form in discharged water of petroleum industry, which are harmful for environment directly or indirectly. Some of the techniques used to treat oily waste/wastewater are membrane technology, photocatalytic degradation, advanced oxidation process, electrochemical catalysis, etc. In this review paper, we aim to discuss past and present scenario of using various treatment technologies for treatment of petroleum industry waste/wastewater. The treatment of petroleum industry wastewater involves physical, chemical, and biological processes. This review also provides scientific literature on knowledge gaps and future research directions to evaluate the effect(s) of various treatment technologies available.

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Objective: Screen the pathogenic genes of a pedigree with clinical manifestation of familial dilated cardiomyopathy in Inner Mongolia. Methods: A total of 3 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and 20 family members from the same family were examined in Ordos Central Hospital in Inner Mongolia from October, 2003 to August, 2017. Data on medical history, physical examinations, electrocardiograms, and echocardiography were obtained. 5 ml peripheral blood was sampled for per person. Chip Capture Sequencing technology was used to capture all the exons and splice sites of the genes that associated with hereditary cardiomyopathy and hereditary arrhythmia. The mutations in these genes were detected by high-throughput sequencing. All suspected pathogenic loci identified by high-throughput sequencing were verified by Sanger sequencing used for mutation detection. One hundred and fifty gender, age and race matched healthy people were included as the control group. Results: Pathogenic gene variations were detected in 3 symptomatic family members and 1 carrier from the pedigree. Five pathogenic gene variations were identified in the proband (Ⅱ1), a pSer236Gly and a pArg215Cys variation in the MYBPC3 gene, a pGln90Arg variation in the DSP gene, and pAsn2912Asp and pGlu2910Val variation in the DMD gene. One pathogenic variation was detected in Ⅲ3, which was a pArg215Cys variation in the MYBPC3 gene. Two pathogenic variations were detected in Ⅲ7, a pSer236Gly variation in the MYBPC3 gene and a pGln90Arg variation in the DSP gene. Two pathogenic variations were detected in the Ⅳ7, a pSer236Gly variation in the MYBPC3 gene and a pGln90Arg variation in the DSP gene. No gene variation loci were detected in the other family members and the control group. Conclusion: MYBPC3 gene, DSP gene and DMD gene variations are present in the familial dilated cardiomyopathy pedigree from Inner Mongolia, and these variations may be related with familial dilated cardiomyopathy.

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Objective: To compare the imaging characteristics and long-term prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM) patients with or without left ventricular apical aneurysm(LVAA). Methods: Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data from 18 patients diagnosed as HCM complicating with LVAA(HCM-LVAA group), hospitalized and underwent cardiac magentic resonance (CMR) examination in Fuwai Hospital between December 2012 and December 2016. Eighteen age and gender matched patients with HCM diagnosed by CMR served as control(HCM group). Outpatient and in-hospital clinical data as well as follow up results were compared. The major adverse cardiovascular events were defined as malignant arrhythmia events (including sudden cardiac death, ventricular flutter/ventricular fibrillation) and heart failure events (including heart transplantation, progressive heart failure). Results: Compared with HCM group, patients in HCM-LVAA group had a more positive family history of HCM(P=0.04), higher incidence of ST-T segment changes and abnormal Q wave in electrocardiograms (both P<0.01), the CMR derived left ventricular end-diastolic transverse diameter and end-diastolic volume index were also significantly higher (both P<0.05), and delayed enhancement was more significant ((25.26±10.60)% vs. (15.78±7.33)%, t=3.12, P=0.004) in HCM-LVAA group. Moreover, the left ventricular ejection fraction ((54.4±10.6)% vs. (67.5±7.6)%, t=-4.28, P<0.000 1) and the thickness of the apical wall ((3.11±1.05) mm vs. (5.46±1.94) mm, t=-4.49, P<0.000 1) were significantly lower in HCM-LVAA group than in HCM group. The mean follow-up duration was (3.46±1.64) years, 4 patients in HCM-LVAA group (22.2%) developed 4 cardiovascular events, including 1 sudden cardiac death, 3 progressive heart failures. One patient in HCM group developed progressive heart failure. Conclusion: The prognosis of the HCM complicating with LVAA patients is worse than that of HCM patients without LVAA, and the amount of late gadolinium enhancement is higher than that of HCM patients without LVAA.

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Objective: To analyze the trends on constituent ratio of non-ST-segment-elevation (NSTEMI) and ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and related in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients hospitalized in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from 2004 to 2014. Methods: This is a single-center, retrospective study. We reviewed all patients hospitalized for AMI in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from January 1 2004 to December 31 2014, and collected all related information including hospitalization stay, the type of AMI, revascularization and in-hospital mortality. We analyzed the trends of constituent ratio of NSTEMI and STEMI, and their in-hospital mortalities during the 11 years. Results: Data from a total of 23 864 patients with AMI, including 5 539 STEMI and 18 325 NSTEMI, were analyzed. Compared with STEMI patients, NSTEMI patients were older, less likely to be male (P<0.001), had higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes (P<0.001), and lower prevalence of smoking (P<0.001). Additionally, patients with NSTEMI were more likely to have prior history of MI (12.6% (695/5 539) vs. 7.4% (1 354/18 325), P<0.001) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (2.7% (152/5 539) vs. 0.7% (124/18 325), P<0.001). The constituent ratio of NSTEMI was significantly increased during the observation period, rising from 15.8% (107/802) in 2004 to 35.7% (1 273/3 583) in 2014 (P value for trend <0.001). The in-hospital mortality of NSTEMI patients was significantly lower compared with those with STEMI (1.84% (102 cases) vs. 2.74% (502 cases), P<0.001). The mortality of both STEMI and NSTEMI were significantly decreased during the 11 years (both P value for χ(2) trend test <0.001). After adjusting for other risk factors, NSTEMI was independently associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR=0.50, 95%CI 0.40-0.63, P<0.001). Conclusions: In patients with AMI, the constituent ratio of NSTEMI versus STEMI is increased during the 11 years. The in-hospital mortality is decreased for both STEMI and NSTEMI patients in the past 11 years, and the in-hospital mortality rate of NSTEMI patients is lower than STEMI patients in this patient cohort during the observation period.

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Objective: Previous studies have shown that plasma microRNA-29a (miRNA-29a) is associated with myocardial fibrosis and the degree of cardiac hypertrophy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the relationship between plasma miRNA-29a and hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has not yet been reported. So the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the plasma miRNA-29a and hypertensive LVH. Method: Enrolled 168 hypertensive patients and classified the patients into 2 groups: those with LVH (LVH group, n=41) and those without LVH (NLVH group, n=127). All patients underwent echocardiography examination. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated by interventricular septal thickness (IVSd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness(LVPWTd), left ventricular end diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were obtained. Plasma levels of miRNA-29a were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The relationship between plasma miRNA-29a levels and LVH was analyzed. Results: Plasma miRNA-29a was significantly higher in LVH group than in NLVH group (0.52±0.10 vs. 0.37±0.07, t=9.788, P<0.01) . Pearson correlation analysis evidenced a positive correlation between plasma miRNA-29a levels and IVSd(R=0.459, P<0.01), LVPWTd (R=0.398, P<0.01), and LVMI (R=0.745, P<0.01). After adjustment for gender, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, hypertension duration, antihypertensive drugs, multiple regression analysis showed that there were still positive correlations between plasma miRNA-29a level and IVSd (β=0.535, P<0.01), LVPWTd (β=0.085, P<0.01), and LVMI (β=0.806, P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma miRNA-29a level is positively associated with LVH in hypertensive patients, and future studies are warranted to explore if miRNA-29a could be used as a potential biomarker for LVH assessment in hypertensive patients.

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Objective: To observe the relationship between impaired myocardial untwisting and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with autoimmune diseases (AD). Methods: In this retrospective study, 95 AD patients (27 males, (38.6±14.2) years old) were enrolled as AD group and 71 gender and age matched healthy subjects (24 males, (37.6±12.2) years old) were enrolled as control group, all underwent transthoracic echocardiography and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in our hospital between January 2014 and June 2018. Left ventricular untwisting and diastolic function parameters were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify related factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in AD patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the diagnosis value of untwisting parameters for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in AD patients. Results: Compared with control group, left ventricular ejection fraction was lower (58(47, 66)% vs. 67 (62, 71) %, P<0.001), E/e' was higher (10.78 (7.28, 13.65) vs. 6.30 (5.55, 7.25) , P<0.001), isovolumic relaxation time was longer (73.5 (56.5, 88.0) ms vs. 62.0 (58.0, 68.5) ms, P<0.001),and untwist slope during isovolumic relaxation period (USIR) was lower (31.92 (14.09, 54.92) °/s vs. 59.90 (40.09, 87.18) °/s, P<0.001) in AD group than in control group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed heart rate (OR=0.885, 95%CI 0.840-0.931, P<0.001), E/e' (OR=0.655, 95%CI 0.537-0.798, P<0.001) and USIR (OR=0.986, 95%CI 0.974-0.998, P=0.020) were independently related with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in AD patients. ROC curve showed that area under the curve (AUC) was 0.919 (P<0.001), sensitivity was 87.6%, and specificity was 88.7%, when combining the heart rate, E/e', and USIR as assessment parameters for the diagnosis of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in AD patients at a cutoff of 0.51. Conclusions: Impairment of myocardial untwisting indicates the presence of early stage left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in AD patients. USIR may be a sensitive parameter to evaluate early stage left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in AD patients.

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Objective: To investigate the association between sleep duration and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Methods: A cross-sectional study method was used to observe 38 604 employees of Kailuan Group who participated in the physical examination and the baPWV test from January 2010 to July 2018. The age was (51.6±11.1) years old. There were 72.4% (27 955/38 604) male participants. According to the sleep duration, subjects were divided into 5 groups including ≤ 5 hours group (3 762 cases),>5 hours and ≤6 hours group (9 585 cases),>6 hours and ≤7 hours group (12 604 cases), >7 hours and ≤8 hours group (11 921 cases) and >8 hours group (732 cases). Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between sleep duration and the baPWV. Results: The age was (51.6±11.1) years old. There were 72.4% (27 955/38 604) male participants. The prevalence of baPWV≥14 m/s in ≤ 5 hours group, >5 hours and ≤6 hours group, >6 hours and ≤7 hours group, >7 hours and ≤8 hours group, and >8 hours group was 63.5% (2 389/3 762), 58.9% (5 645/9 585), 55.0% (6 926/12 604), 53.3% (6 356/11 921) and 54.8% (401/732) respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, smoking, drinking, physical exercise, snoring, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, body mass index≥24 kg/m(2), mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and C-reactive protein, the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the OR were 1.48 (95%CI 1.29-1.70, P<0.01) and 1.18 (95%CI 1.07-1.30, P<0.01) respectively for baPWV≥14 m/s in ≤ 5 hours and >5 hours and ≤6 hours group when compared with >7 hours and ≤ 8 hours group. Conclusion: Short sleep duration is associated with elevated baPWV in mid-aged Chinese population.

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The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important modulator of human health. As such, there is a growing need to identify effective means of selectively modifying gut microbial communities. Bacteriophages, which were briefly utilized as clinical antimicrobials in the early 20th century, present an opportunity to selectively reduce populations of undesirable microorganisms. However, whether intentional consumption of specific bacteriophages affects overall gut ecology is not yet known. Using a commercial cocktail of Escherichia coli-targeting bacteriophages, we examined their effects on gut microbiota and markers of intestinal and systemic inflammation in a healthy human population. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial, normal to overweight adults consumed bacteriophages for 28 days. Stool and blood samples were collected and used to examine inflammatory markers, lipid metabolism, and gut microbiota. Reductions in fecal E. coli loads were observed with phage consumption. However, there were no significant changes to alpha and beta diversity parameters, suggesting that consumed phages did not globally disrupt the microbiota. However, specific populations were altered in response to treatment, including increases in members of the butyrate-producing genera Eubacterium and a decreased proportion of taxa most closely related to Clostridium perfringens. Short-chain fatty acid production, inflammatory markers, and lipid metabolism were largely unaltered, but there was a small but significant decrease in circulating interleukin-4 (Il-4). Together, these data demonstrate the potential of bacteriophages to selectively reduce target organisms without global disruption of the gut community.

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Evidence suggests that socioeconomically disadvantaged children may experience a greater increase in overweight risk during macroeconomic downturns. We examined whether inequalities in the risk of overweight between Japanese children from single- and two-parent households increased after the 2008 global financial crisis. We used data from ten waves (2001 to 2011) of a nationwide longitudinal survey following all Japanese children born within 2 weeks in 2001 (boys: n = 15,417, girls: n = 14,245). Child overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-offs for Body Mass Index (BMI). Interaction between a binary measure of crisis onset (September 2008) and single-parent status was assessed using generalized estimating equation models. Covariates included baseline household income and income loss during the crisis. Girls from single-parent households showed a greater increase in the odds of overweight after crisis onset (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04⁻1.46) compared to girls from households with two parents, regardless of household financial status. A similar though statistically non-significant trend was observed among boys (AOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.92⁻1.30). Child overweight risk by single-parent status may increase during macroeconomic downturns, at least among girls. Financial aid to single-parent households may not suffice to redress this gap.