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Malabsorption syndromes are common in family medicine but may be overlooked because of a wide variation in presentation. Classic symptoms include diarrhea, steatorrhea, weight loss, flatulence, and postprandial abdominal pain. Nongastrointestinal manifestations can include elevated levels of liver function markers, anemia, skin conditions, infertility, and bone disease. Associated conditions include lactose intolerance, celiac disease, and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Testing should include screening for anemia. A standard test for lactose intolerance is the hydrogen breath test; however, formal testing typically is not required for diagnosis. The diagnosis of celiac disease depends on serologic testing, histologic findings on duodenal biopsy, or both. Patients should not restrict their diets before testing for malabsorption syndromes. If the initial evaluation is negative for celiac disease, other conditions should be considered, including nonceliac gluten sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, and fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) intolerance. Therapies for patients with malabsorption syndromes involve dietary modification. A lactose-restricted diet and use of dairy substitutes are recommended for lactose intolerance. A gluten-free diet is the primary intervention for celiac disease. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy and replacement of fat-soluble vitamins are the primary therapies for management of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

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Objectives: This study explored the relationship between weight control and atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation in overweight and obese patients. Methods: We prospectively enrolled consecutive 333 overweight and obese patients aged 28 to 87 years old, who underwent catheter ablation for AF in Beijing Anzhen Hospital between October 2015 and February 2016. Data of patients' characteristics, laboratory examination and treatment were collected at baseline. Each patient was followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months after ablation to collect information on weight, AF recurrence, stroke, major bleeding, hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons and death, etc. Patients were divided into weight controlled group (ΔBMI<-1 kg/m(2)) and weight uncontrolled group (ΔBMI≥-1 kg/m(2)), according to the changes in the most recent exposure BMI before AF recurrence in patients with recurrence or the BMI at 12 months' follow-up in patients without recurrence and the BMI at baseline. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to adjust other known risk factors of AF recurrence and to explore the association between weight control and AF recurrence after catheter ablation. Results: There were 54 patients in weight controlled group and 279 patients in weight uncontrolled group. There were no significant differences in age, gender, education level, left atrial size and history of hypertension between the two groups (all P>0.05). The proportion of patients using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers was higher in the weight controlled group (50.0%(27/54) vs. 34.8%(97/279), P=0.034). However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with obesity (33.3% (18/54) vs. 29.7% (83/279)), paroxysmal AF (59.3% (32/54) vs. 56.6% (158/279)) and AF duration less than 5 years (76.9% (40/52) vs. 65.4% (178/272)) between the weight controlled group and the uncontrolled group. During 1-year follow-up after ablation, the recurrence rate of AF was significantly lower in the weight controlled group than that in the weight uncontrolled group (14.8% (8/54) vs. 32.6%(91/279), P=0.009). Multivariable logistic regression analysis shows that weight control is independently associated with a lower postoperative AF recurrence rate (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.18-0.90, P=0.026). Conclusion: Weight control is strongly associated with a lower AF recurrence rate after catheter ablation in overweight and obese patients.

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Objective: Differences in the activated coagulation time (ACT) during ablation and adequate heparin dosing were observed among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing AF catheter ablation receiving different anticoagulation therapies and the suitable heparin dosing during ablation among patients treated with different anticoagulation therapies was explored. Methods: Patients who received warfarin (n=100), low-molecular-weight heparin (n=100), dabigatran etexilate (n=98, 110 mg, Bid) and rivaroxaban (n=48, 20 mg, Qd) were included. All of them underwent the first AF ablation during January 2016 to December 2017 and patients with hepatic and renal dysfunction were excluded. Initial bolus heparin (100 U/kg, intravenous) was applied to all patients. Additional heparin dosage was added according to the ACT, which was measured in 15-minute interval to maintain the ACT within 250-350 seconds until the end of ablation. Patient characteristics, ACT and complications were compared among various groups. Results: The baseline general characteristics among patients were similar. The baseline ACTs in the dabigatran groups were significantly longer than those in the rivaroxaban group ((133±36) seconds vs. (113±22) seconds, P<0.05). The 15 min ACT in the warfarin group was longer than in the dabigatran group ((259±56) seconds vs. (243±43) seconds, P<0.05). The 15-minute ACTs were significantly longer in the warfarin ((259±56) seconds) and dabigatran ((243±43) seconds) groups compare with low-molecular-weight heparin group ((224±40) seconds) and rivaroxaban group ((226±32) seconds) (all P<0.05). The same trend was also observed in the rate of reaching ACT goal after initial-standard-dosage of heparin (warfarin (53%, 53/100), dabigatran (45%,44/98), low-molecular-weight heparin (28%,28/100), rivaroxaban (23%,11/48), P<0.05). The 1 hour ACT in the warfarin group ((254±49) seconds) was significantly longer than the other three groups (dabigatran (233±33) seconds, low-molecular-weight heparin (226±34) seconds, rivaroxaban (231±30) seconds, all P<0.01). The rate of reaching ACT goal at 1 hour were significantly higher in the warfarin group (66%,35/53) than in the dabigatran group (41%,18/44), and rivaroxaban group (27%,3/11) (all P<0.05). The total heparin required was significantly higher in rivaroxaban group than in the dabigatran and warfarin groups (all P<0.05). During the perioperative period, no patient exhibited any thromboembolic complications, and only a few minor bleeding complications was observed among patients, which was similar between the four groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Higher dosage of heparin is required during AF ablation to achieve the satisfactory anticoagulant intensity for AF patients under dabigatran etexilate (110 mg, Bid), low-molecular-weight heparin and rivaroxaban (20 mg, Qd) anticoagulation therapy before AF ablation.

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Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanism of digoxin on atrium electrical remodeling and susceptibility of atrial fibrillation (AF) in aged rabbits. Methods: Twenty aged male New Zealand rabbits were divided into aged group and aged plus digoxin group (n=10 each). Electrical parameters including heart rate (HR), RR and QT interval, ST segment and P wave dispersion from normal Ⅱ electrocardiogram, and the maximum upstroke velocity (Max(dv/dt)), plateau potential (plateau P), action potential duration of 10%, 20% and 90% (APD(10), APD(20), APD(90)) from recording of monophasic action potential (MAP), as well as atrial effective refractory period (AERP(200)) and dispersion (dERP(200)) with 200 ms of basic cycle length (BCL), and frequency self adaptation of AERP with 300 ms and 150 ms of BCLs (fERP) were recorded and compared between the 2 groups. BCLs and inducibility of AF post programmed electrical stimulation and Burst-pacing in left atrium tissue of rabbits in vivo were also analyzed. The L-type calcium current (I(Ca-L)) in 2 groups were recorded via whole-cell patch clamp technique, and the fluorescence intensity of intracellular free Ca(2+) was detected with Flup-3/AM loading by the laser scanning confocal microscope in enzymatically dissociated single rabbit atrial myocytes. Results: Compared with aged group, the heart rate was faster, RR and QT interval were obvious shorter, ST segment was raised and P wave dispersion was significantly increased in aged plus digoxin group (all P<0.05). Moreover, compared with aged group, the Max(dv/dt) and plateau P were obviously increased, APD(10) and APD(20) were significantly prolongated, and APD(9)0 was significantly shorter in aged plus digoxin group (all P<0.01). Otherwise, the fERP was markedly increased (0.81±0.15 vs. 0.67±0.05), and the induced rate of AF was obviously higher in aged plus digoxin group than in aged group (6/8 vs. 4/9) (all P<0.01). With voltage clamp model, digoxin significantly increased I(Ca-L) of atrial myocytes of aged rabbits, When command potential was 10 mV, the current densities of I(Ca-L) were significantly higher in digoxin group than that in aged group ((15.45±2.38) pA/pF vs. (7.03±1.69) pA/pF, P<0.01). Otherwise, the I-V curve of I(Ca-L) was downward shifted of all I-V curves in digoxin perfused aged atrial cells of rabbits. Moreover, the fluorescence intensities of intracellular free Ca(2+) was significantly higher in aged plus digoxin group than in aged group ((1 748±173) μmol/L vs. (478.13±87.63) μmol/L, P<0.01). Conclusion: Digoxin could aggravate the atrial electrical remodeling in atrium of aged rabbits, facilitate susceptibility of atrial fibrillation in aged rabbit, increased current density of I(Ca-L) and concentration of intracellular free Ca(2+), followed Ca(2+) overload and oscillations might be part of the underlying mechanisms.

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Objective: To investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of tolvaptan on chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced atrial remodeling in rats. Methods: A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups by the random number table: control group, CIH group (6 h/d for 30 days), CIH plus tolvaptan group (8 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) per gavage for 30 days). Echocardiography examination was performed after 30 days. Thereafter, 5 rats were randomly chosen for histology evaluation, 5 for molecular biological examinations and another 5 rats underwent isolated heart electrophysiology study in each group. Protein and mRNA expression levels of miRNA-21, Spry1, PTEN, ERK/p-ERK, MMP-9, PI3K, AKT/p-AKT were detected. Results: Compared to the rats in control group, rats in the CIH group showed higher atrial interstitial collagen deposition (P<0.001), increased atrial fibrillation inducibility (P=0.022). The results of immunohistochemistry staining showed that the mean optical density (MOD) of ERK, p-ERK and MMP-9 were significantly increased (all P<0.05), the MOD of Spry1 and PTEN were significantly decreased (both P<0.05), above changes could be significantly reversed by cotreatment with tolvaptan. No significant differences were detected in PI3K and AKT among the three groups (P>0.05). In addition, compared with rats in control group, mRNA levels of miRNA-21, MMP-9, PI3K, AKT, and protein levels of ERK, p-ERK, MMP-9 were significantly increased in CIH group(all P<0.05), whereas protein levels of Spry1, PI3K, p-AKT were significantly decreased (all P<0.05). Above changes could be significantly attenuated. Conclusions: CIH induces significant atrial remodeling in this rat model, which can be attenuated by tolvaptan possibly through modulating miRNA-21/Spry1/ERK/MMP-9 and miRNA-21/PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

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Objective: To investigate the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging characteristics and influence factors of aortic insufficiency (AI) patients with myocardial fibrosis. Method: This retrospective study included 59 AI patients who received CMR and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examinations from June 2011 to February 2015. AI patients were divided into 2 groups: bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) group (n=30) and non-BAV group (n=29). Patients were also divided into late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) group (n=27) and non-LGE group (n=32). The baseline clinical characteristics were collected through electronic medical records. Hemodynamic parameters such as grade of AI, cardiac functional parameters and LGE mass fraction (LGE%) were measured by CMR post-processing analysis. Kappa test was used to assess the consistency of AI severity between CMR and TTE, and the multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate influence factors of myocardial fibrosis in AI patients. Results: (1) 56 (94.9%) patients were male, and the mean age was (44.2±11.0) years old. There was no significant difference in age and gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, alcoholic consumption between BAV and non-BAV group (all P>0.05). There were a higher proportion of smoking history (P=0.008), a lower body mass index (BMI) (P=0.020) in the LGE group than in the non-LGE group. (2) The accuracy of CMR in diagnosis of BAV was 96.7% (29/30) compared to the gold standard. In the BAV group, 20 patients (66.7%) were with fusion of left and right cusp (L-R), 5 patients (16.7%) were with fusion of right and noncoronary cusp (R-N), 5 patients (16.7%) were with fusion of left and noncoronary cusp (L-N); patients with BAV had larger left ventricular end diastolic volume index (LVEDVi), left ventricular end systolic volume index (LVESVi), higher proportion of LGE and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) than those in non-BAV group (all P<0.05). There were 19 patients with BAV in the LGE group, the cases of L-R, R-N, L-N were 10 (52.6%), 5 (26.3%), and 4 (21.1%), respectively. In the non-LGE group, patients with BAV of L-R, R-N, L-N were 10 (90.9%), 0, and 1 (9.1%), respectively. Patients with LGE had lower body surface area (BSA), LVEF and larger LVEDVi, LVESVi, left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and higher proportion of BAV compared patients without LGE. In addition, the proportion of moderate and severe AI patients was significantly higher in BAV group than in non-BAV group (P=0.009). (3) The consistency of CMR and TTE in evaluating the severity of AI patients: the agreement between TTE and CMR regarding AI severity was satisfactory (kappa value was 0.624, 95%CI 0.402-0.831, P<0.001). (4) The linear regression analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between LVEF and LGE% in BAV and non-BAV group (P<0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of BAV was an independent risk factor of left ventricucar fibrosis (OR=5.050, 95%CI 1.220-20.908, P=0.025) after adjustment for LVEF, hypertension, LVEDVi and LVMi. Conclusion: Multi-parametric CMR provides a satisfactory noninvasive tool for estimation of myocardial fibrosis and ventricular remodeling in patients with AI, and BAV is an independent risk factor for myocardial fibrosis in patients with AI.

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Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of renal cortical blood perfusion assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in elderly patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) and its relationship with renal function. Methods: Ninety-three elderly patients diagnosed with RAS, who were admitted in Beijing Hospital during June 2017 and December 2018, were retrospectively enrolled. According to the degree of RAS, 186 renal arteries were divided into normal renal artery group (n=79), mild RAS group (30% to 49%, n=59), moderate RAS group (50% to 70%, n=33), and severe RAS group (70% to 99%, n=15). Renal cortical blood perfusion and renal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured by CEUS and radionuclide renal dynamic imaging. According to the renal GFR, 186 kidneys were divided into normal renal function group (GFR≥35 ml/min, n=42) and mild renal insufficiency group (35 ml/min>GFR≥25 ml/min, n=51), moderate renal insufficiency group (25 ml/min>GFR≥15 ml/min, n=75) and severe renal insufficiency group (GFR<15 ml/min, n=18). The renal cortical blood perfusion time-intensity curve (TIC) and related parameters were analyzed, including the area under the curve (AUC), the slope of the ascending branch (A), the peak intensity (PI), the peak time (TTP) and the mean transit time (MTT), the kidneys of different RAS groups and patients with different renal function groups were analyzed. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between renal cortical blood perfusion parameters and renal GFR. Results: (1) Renal cortical blood perfusion and GFR: CEUS showed that parameter A of TIC was significantly reduced, while TTP was prolonged in the mild renal artery stenosis group compared with the normal renal artery group (both P<0.05), GFP was similar between the two groups. Cortical perfusion parameters, such as AUC, A, PI and GFR were significantly lower, while TTP and MTT were significantly prolonged in the moderate and severe renal artery stenosis group than in the normal and mild stenosis groups (all P<0.05). Compared with the moderate stenosis group, AUC, A, PI and GFR were significantly lower while TTP, MTT were significantly prolonged in the severe renal artery stenosis group (all P<0.05). (2) TIC showed that the renal perfusion parameters, AUC, PI and A were significantly lower, while TTP was significantly longer in the mild renal dysfunction group than in the normal renal function group (all P<0.001). The changes aggravated in proportion with renal dysfunction. (3) Correlation between perfusion parameters and GFR: Pearson correlation analysis showed that the AUC (r=0.774, P<0.05), A (r=0.815, P<0.05) and PI (r=0.772, P<0.05) were positively correlated with GFR; serum creatinine level (r=-0.841, P<0.05), renal function grading (r=-0.731, P<0.05), TTP (r=-0.803, P<0.05) and MTT (r=-0.741, P<0.05) were negative correlated with GFR. The degree of stenosis was negatively correlated with GFR (r=-0.427, P<0.05). Conclusion: Cortical perfusion parameters differ significantly among patients with various degree of RAS and renal dysfunction. The renal cortical blood perfusion parameters are correlated with renal GFR.

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Objective: To investigate the effects of tanshinone ⅡA on atherosclerosis plaque formation and adventitial mast cells activation in high-fat-diet induced Apo E(-/-) mice model. Methods: Sixteen 8-week-old Apo E(-/-)male mice and eight 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were randomly allocated into following group: the control group (C57BL/6 + carboxymethyl cellulose per gavage), the atherogenic group (Apo E(-/-)+carboxymethyl cellulose per gavage) and the tanshinoneⅡA intervention group (Apo E(-/-)+30 mg/kg tanshinone ⅡA per gavage). All three groups were fed with high-fat-diet for 26 weeks. Tanshinone ⅡA/carboxymethyl cellulose was applied by the method of gavage administration 6 weeks before execution. After 26 weeks, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) andinterleukin (IL)-6 levels in serum were assessed by ELISA. Carotid artery was removed, fixed with paraformaldehyde, embedded with paraffin and sectioned. Percentage of stenosis was evaluated on HE stained sections. Plaque progression was assessed by Movat staining. Toluidine blue staining was used to evaluate mast cells infiltration and activation. Immunochemistry staining was used to assess 5-HT, TNF-α and IL-6 expression. mRNA expression of mast cell marker Fcer1a in adventitial tissue was detected by real time-PCR. Results: After high-fat-diet for 26 weeks, the mice in the atherogenic group showed advanced atherosclerosis, tanshinoneⅡA intervention reduced the percentage of carotid artery stenosis caused by atherosclerotic plaque formation ((58.48±8.07)% vs. (80.31±4.08)%, P<0.05). Compared with the atherogenic group, tanshinone ⅡA intervention group had lower level of TNF-α ((12.39±1.62)pg/ml vs. (17.44±1.42)pg/ml) and IL-6 ((116.24±12.16)pg/ml vs. (166.05±19.09)pg/ml) in serum, lower TNF-α ((20 145±1 556) vs. (25 288±1 671)) and IL-6 ((25 688±1 604) vs. (35 286±4 198)) expression in adventitia (all P<0.05). TanshinoneⅡA intervention also decreased the number of mast cells infiltration and activation, reduced 5-HT expression and mast cell marker Fcer1a mRNA relative expression in adventitia (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Tanshinone ⅡA could attenuate induced by high-fat-diet carotid artery atherosclerosis in Apo E(-/-) mice. The protective effect of tanshinoneⅡA is probably mediated through reducing the number and activation percentage of mast cells, decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation of carotid artery in adventitia.

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Objective: To investigate the impact of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) on function and expression of store-operated calcium channels (SOCC) in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) derived from diabetic rat. Methods: A total of 180 healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal group (N, n=45), placebo-treated diabetic group (D, n=45), lose dose n-3 PUFA treated diabetic group (DL, n=45) and high dose n-3 PUFAs treated diabetic group (DH, n=45). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat animal model was established by two consecutive intraperitoneal injections. After modeling, rats in group DL and DH were treated with 10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) and 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) n-3 PUFAs respectively per gavage for eight weeks. After eight weeks, rat coronary artery SMC was isolated by enzyme digestion. Changes of cytosolic calcium concentration in coronary artery SMC were examined by calcium fluorescence imaging technique, coronary artery tension was detected by myograph system, and protein expressions of SOCC on coronary artery SMC were measured by Western blot. Results: SOCC induced ΔF340/F380 of group N, D, DL and DH were 0.425±0.023, 0.838±0.037, 0.342±0.052 and 0.364±0.045 respectively, which was significantly lower in group N, DL, DH than in group D (P<0.05). SOCC induced changes of tensions were 0.94±0.09, 1.95±0.18, 1.35±0.24 and 1.01±0.18 in the group N, D, DL and DH, respectively, which was significantly lower in group N and DH than in group D (P<0.05). Protein expressions of STIM1, Orai1 and TRPC1 were significantly higher in diabetic rat coronary SMC than in group N (P<0.05). STIM1 protein expressions were significantly lower in group DL and DH than in group D, and Orai1 and TRPC1 protein expressions were similar among group. Conclusions: Coronary artery tension, cytosolic calcium concentration and protein expressions of SOCC are higher in diabetic rat coronary artery SMC when compared with normal rats. n-3 PUFA intervention could downregulate the protein expression of SOCC, reduce cytosolic calcium concentration and coronary artery tension, and is protective to the diabetic injury in coronary artery.

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Objective: To investigate the effect and possible mechanism of berberine (Ber) on myocardial injury induced by exhaustion exercise (Ee). Methods: Forty healthy male SPF Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups using the random unit group design method: control group, Ee group and Ee plus Ber group (low: 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), medium: 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) and high dose: 150 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), n=8 each). Ber (1.5 ml) or equal volume saline was given per gavage for 14 days. Rats assigned to Ee groups underwent Ee swimming once daily and rats in control group remain sedentary. After 14 days, echocardiographic measurements were performed and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and fractional shortening (LVFS), left ventricular diastolic diameter (LVIDd) and left ventricular systolic diameter (LVIDs) were obtained. The morphological structure of heart was detected by HE and Masson staining. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cardiomyocytes apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method. The protein expression of myocardial hypertrophy marker protein B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and apoptotic marker protein (Bcl-2, Bax) in rat myocardial tissue was detected by Western blot. Results: (1) Both LVFS and LVEF were significantly lower, and LVIDs and LVIDd were significantly larger in Ee group than those in control group (all P<0.01). The LVFS and LVEF in medium dose of Ber and high-dose Ber groups were significantly higher, and the LVIDs and LVIDd were significantly smaller than those in Ee group (all P<0.01). (2) The results of HE staining showed that the myocardial cells in control group were closely arranged, regular, normal in morphology, clear in structure, and uniform in staining. The myocardial cells of rats in Ee group were disarranged, cell staining was uneven, and vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm. The disorder of myocardial cell arrangement and unequal staining in the medium dose of Ber were attenuated than in Ee group. The Masson staining results showed that the myocardial cells in control group were closely arranged, regular, normal in shape, clear in structure, and rarely blue-stained (fibrosis). Myocardial cells in rats in Ee group showed obvious fibrosis. The myocardial cell fibrosis in rats with medium dose of Ber was significantly reduced than exercise group. (3) MDA content in myocardial tissue of rats in Ee group was significantly higher than that of control group, and MDA content in myocardial tissue of rats in medium dose of Ber group was significantly lower than in Ee group (P<0.01). The SOD activity of myocardial tissue in rats was significantly lower than that of control group, while that of rats with medium dose of Ber was significantly higher than that of rats in Ee group (P<0.01). (4) TUNEL staining results showed that only a small amount of apoptosis myocardial cells were seen in control group, and a large number of apoptosis myocardial cells were seen in rats in Ee group. However, the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in medium dose of Ber was significantly lower than that in Ee group. The AI of rat cardiomyocytes was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.01), and the AI of rat cardiomyocytes in median dose of Ber group was significantly lower than in Ee group (P<0.01). (5) BNP and Bax protein expression in the myocardial tissues of rats in Ee group were significantly higher than in control group (P<0.01). BNP and Bax protein expression in the myocardial tissues in median dose of Ber group were significantly lower than that of Ee group (P<0.01). The myocardial protein expression level of Bax was significantly higher, and the myocardial protein level of Bcl-2 was significantly lower in Ee group than in control group (both P<0.01), treatment with median dose of Ber could partly reverse above changes (both P<0.01). Conclusion: Ber can attenuate exhaustion exercise induced myocardial injury and remodeling in rats, and the beneficial effects of Ber might possibly be mediated by reducing free radical release and cardiomyocytes apoptosis.